The American Aircraft Carrier That Won the War in the Pacific


ESSEX-CLASS AIRCRAFT CARRIER
Propulsion: 4 units of Westinghouse steam generators, with eight Babcock & Wilcox oil-fired boilers, producing 150,000 shaft horsepower
Size: 872 ft (888 ft for lengthy hull)
Beam: 93 ft
Draft (full load): 27 ft 6 inches
Displacement (customary): 30,800 tons
Displacement (full load): 36,380 tons (brief hull) or 46,380 tons (lengthy hull)
Most velocity: 33 knots
Vary: 20,000 nautical miles at 15 knots
Complement: 2,600–3,400 males

Ordered by the U.S. Navy in 1940, the 30,800-ton Essex-class plane provider was a logical enchancment over the 19,800-ton Yorktown (CV-5) class. Not certain by building limitations imposed by the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, america designed the category to steam sooner, carry extra and heavier plane, and higher shield itself. From the time Essex (CV-9) and sister ship Yorktown (CV-10), with the sunshine provider Independence (CVL-22), launched their first strike, in opposition to Marcus Island on Aug. 31, 1943, the category proved capable of survive great punishment—most dramatically demonstrated in 1945 by the battle-damaged Franklin (CV-13) and Bunker Hill (CV-17). The category was additionally adaptable to a sequence of enhancements, together with lengthened decks on a number of carriers. Air teams initially totaled 90 plane per provider, 36 of which had been fighters, 36 dive bombers and 18 torpedo bombers. By December 1944 the composition had modified to 73 fighters (4 of which had been radar-equipped Grumman F6F-5N Hellcat or Vought F4U-2 Corsair night time fighters), 15 dive bombers (with fighters additionally shouldering that function) and 15 torpedo bombers. Although the built-in deck catapults noticed little use at first, up-armored planes required the carriers to launch as much as 40 % of their plane by 1945.

Extra Essex-class ships had been constructed than some other provider class in historical past, with 14 of the 24 accomplished contributing considerably to the Allied marketing campaign within the Pacific and the attendant destruction of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Some served on in Korea, Vietnam and the Chilly Struggle, with the area program and in coaching roles. The final of the category to retire, in 1991, was Lexington (CV-16), the onetime flagship of Activity Drive 58. Surviving examples function museum ships—Yorktown in Mount Nice, S.C.; Intrepid (CV-11) in New York Metropolis; Hornet (CV-12) in Alameda, Calif.; and Lexington in Corpus Christi, Texas. MH

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