In 1991 Ukraine Gained Independence From the Soviet Union. So Did Dmytro Verholjak.


My title is Dmytro Verholjak, and I used to be born in Manyava, within the Ivano-Frankivsk province of Ukraine. When the primary Soviets got here, my brother informed me that he’d slightly flee to the West than serve the Russians. Later, I looked for him and with God’s assist discovered him, after 50 years of not seeing him. He was in Australia. Our household had been closely repressed by the primary wave of Soviets, then the second wave virtually wiped us out.

In the course of the German occupation within the struggle, I moved to the Ternopil province and located work on a farm. There was no work the place I lived, and once I left house, my mom informed me: “The bread you earn together with your fingers will style the perfect.” It was laborious to say goodbye to my mom—we liked one another very a lot. One other factor she informed me was that irrespective of how laborious issues received, to by no means take my very own life, that it was the largest sin you possibly can commit. I remembered that so clearly—how she mentioned it—particularly in a while, once I was in a camp.

The individuals I labored for on the farm have been very good, civilized. I’m very grateful to them for all they did for me, for what they taught me. I used to be there for 4 years, and by the point I returned house, the Russians had arrived as so-called liberators—throwing some individuals in jail and sending others to work within the mines within the east. I noticed how they tortured individuals and humiliated Ukrainians. I felt that there was little for me to do however be a part of the Ukrainian Rebel Military. I spoke with the partisans in my space and mentioned, “I’m going with you.” They didn’t need me, as a result of I used to be nonetheless a child. They mentioned, “We’ve our path, however it’s a must to wait to observe this path, in 20 or 30 years.” I informed them I wasn’t leaving them. So one in every of them shrugged his shoulders and rotated, and I adopted them.

The primary time I used to be injured was a 12 months after I went underground. 5 bullets in my foot. I used to be dwelling within the forest with a couple of others, all younger children. We have been busted within the forest by the NKVD, the Individuals’s Commissariat for Inside Affairs. There have been 5 of us, and so they fired at us. I received hit then, in my left foot. I needed to blow myself up with a grenade in order that they wouldn’t take me alive, however as soon as I spotted that I might nonetheless stroll, I threw the grenade within the course they have been taking pictures from and ran with the others. They fired extra photographs, blindly, however didn’t hit anybody else, and we have been capable of escape. I obtained three accidents once I was with the insurgents. That first harm has haunted me all my life. A nurse bandaged me as soon as after that incident, and for 3 or 4 weeks after that, nobody took care of the wound, and it was actually crawling with bugs. It smelled unhealthy sufficient that folks didn’t need to be round me.

One time I used to be left alone as a result of I couldn’t stroll, whereas two others went off to the village to get some meals. I used to be discovered by Honta, an older member. He requested why I used to be all on my own and why nobody took care of me. I informed him the story of how I received injured and nobody attended the wound for a month. He received offended and informed me to hold tight, informed me that wasn’t the order of issues, that he would deal with it and I might by no means be left alone once more like that. Then he left.

Later that night time, my guys got here again and informed me that they’d by no means go away me once more. The subsequent morning, the nurse discovered us within the forest with one other partisan. When she took the bandage off, we noticed that the wound was crawling with all types of bugs. She stored saying, “Don’t fear. If there are bugs, it means there are not any germs.” I don’t know what sort of medical faculty she went to, however at the moment, I had no concept what she was saying. Now, I perceive she was attempting to get me to relax. As she was reducing my pants with scissors, I used to be considering, “These are my solely pants—what am I going to do?” The nurse mentioned that whenever you’re alive, you will get new pants, however if you happen to’re lifeless, there’ll be no pants for you in any respect. She stepped away momentarily with the opposite partisan she’d arrived with, our commander, and began yelling at him: “How might you let this occur? How is it that your troopers aren’t even educated to vary a easy bandage?” Quickly after, these in command determined that the nurses would want to coach the troopers to deal with one another. I knew a bit of Latin, so it was simpler for me to be taught than for others. However for probably the most half, we didn’t even know easy hygiene on the time. We didn’t have paper or pencils, to not point out medical devices. And I used to be studying to do every little thing with my very own wound. After I discovered lots of the easier issues and will stroll, they requested me to journey to one of many rebel facilities in a special village, the place there was a wounded one that wanted to be taken care of. I discovered the way to give injections there. I practiced on pillows, after all, earlier than I did it to individuals. After that, I used to be despatched from one village to a different, caring for the wounded in addition to performing as a courier between teams.

Doing that, I discovered all of the paths by the mountains. I walked all over the place—my legs have been so enormous that if I sat, my knees would virtually be below my chin. I used to be a giant, wholesome man at the moment. They gave me a nickname: Oak, just like the tree.

Even after the struggle ended, we carried on preventing in opposition to the Soviets. They have been as unhealthy because the Germans, if not worse. The NKVD have been all over the place, in search of insurgents. They tried to bribe or scare individuals for info, and many people have been killed or despatched away. I used to be lastly arrested in 1952, after being bought out. They tortured and interrogated me, put chemical substances in my meals. There was an agent with me in my cell who was on a “particular food plan” whereas they mainly fed me poison.

My well being declined there, and finally, I used to be despatched to a camp in Potma, in Mordovia, for 25 years. There have been Poles, Russians, different Ukrainians there. All people. They rapidly discovered that I had been a medic, and I used to be despatched to work within the camp’s hospital. The warden was in opposition to this; he was screaming, “Have you learnt who he’s? He’s a nationalist, a Banderivets!” [a follower of Stepan Bandera, a Ukrainian insurgent leader] The nurse informed him, “I don’t care who he’s. So long as he’s treating others, he’ll be working right here.” That was 25 years of my life. They have been “correcting” me and didn’t appropriate something. After they launched me, I used to be very nervous. My sister arrived to satisfy me on the gates. It was 1980 once I lastly received again to Ukraine. However even free, they didn’t let me do a lot. I couldn’t work as a health care provider or a medic with my document. I needed to keep in my village on a regular basis, and I wasn’t allowed to depart my home after 10 p.m. That was my freedom.

However I received a job as a masseur. It was powerful to even get that job, however I managed it. I labored as a masseur for 10 years, from 1981 to 1991, when Ukraine lastly gained independence. Now, I’m right here in Markova, and the individuals from the village assist me so much. I’ve a pension.

That’s how I began to dwell freely solely after I turned 80. MHQ

Excerpted from Veterans: Faces of World Warfare II (Princeton Architectural Press, 2017), by Sasha Maslov.

Textual content and {photograph} © 2017 by Sasha Maslov.

This text seems within the Autumn 2017 situation (Vol. 30, No. 1) of MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Navy Historical past with the headline: The Rebel

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